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Soviet ark: how 100 years ago Russians were deported from the USA

"Christmas gift to Lenin and Trotsky", "Red Ark", "Soviet Ark" - this is what the American press in the winter of 1919-1920 called the ship with 249 natives of the Russian Empire deported to Soviet Russia. In Russia, the arrival was not the best welcome. Writes about it Komersant.

Фото: Depositphotos

Russian means red

“At the same time, America became one of the first countries in terms of the depth of the abyss between a handful of brazen billionaires drowning in mud and luxury, on the one hand, and millions of working people, forever living on the brink of poverty, on the other,” he wrote in August 1918. Vladimir Ilyich Lenin in "Letter to American Workers".

The “letter” added fuel to the bonfire of political passions burning in American society, and strengthened the conservative US faith in the “red threat”. After the successful Bolshevik revolution of 1917, US authorities seriously feared what they would have like in Russia. And they took measures to prevent this from happening.

In 1920, 1,4 million Russian immigrants lived in the United States, accounting for approximately 1,3% of the population. From 1918 to 1925, 979 "foreign anarchist foreigners" were deported from the United States. More than 10 thousand people were arrested for belonging to left-wing organizations. The vast majority of those subjected to political repression were natives of Russia.

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In each “Russian” they saw a potential Bolshevik, “red”, communist, anarchist - in short, a threat to the existing social system.

Sometimes these suspicions were not unfounded - many immigrants from Russia adhered to leftist beliefs.

In 1905, the United Industrial Workers of the World (IRM) working organization was created in the USA. Her ideology was revolutionary syndicalism. The IRM did not recognize the power of political parties and the electoral struggle and proposed achieving goals with the help of strikes. The IRM advocated the elimination of the wage labor system and the establishment of a new economic and political order. It was planned to achieve these goals through a general strike.

Those who were denied access to the less radical American Federation of Labor (AFL) could join the IRM — unskilled workers, women, members of other races, and recent immigrants. In 1917, 150 thousand people were in the IRM.

Immigrants from Russia, who usually did not speak English well, were not admitted to the AFL. Therefore, they massively joined the IRM.

In some cities in the United States, there were even Russian branches of the Industrial Workers of the World.

With the beginning of World War I, the IRM, which was protesting against the participation of the United States in the war, was subjected to repression. On September 5, 1917, agents of the Department of Justice searched the dozens of IRM units.

Based on documents and literature seized during the searches, 165 IRM activists were arrested, 101 of them appeared in court on charges of conspiracy to impede military conscription, encourage desertion, and intimidate others in connection with labor charges. 93 people were sentenced to various terms. Of these, 15 people, including IRM leader Bill Haywood, received the maximum sentence of 20 years in prison.

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Immigrants from Russia also belonged to another organization of anarcho-syndicalist orientation - the Union of Russian Workers of the USA and Canada. The number of members of the "Union" has grown rapidly after the Bolsheviks came to power in Russia. At the beginning of 1918 there were about 4 thousand, in November 1919 - more than 9 thousand.

And hoover is so young

In February 1919, a general strike took place in Seattle. After its completion, 39 members of the IRM were arrested. Seattle Mayor Oli Hanson called the strike “an attempted coup” and began to travel around the United States with lectures on the Bolshevik threat. The Department of Justice announced its readiness to expel “7-8 thousand radicals” from the country.

At the end of April of that year, followers of the radical Italian anarchist Luigi Galleani sent 36 parcels with bombs to prominent US political and government figures. The explosions were planned to coincide with May Day. Fortunately, no one died. The black maid of Senator Thomas Hardwick, having opened the parcel, lost her hands. Most of the packages were intercepted.

In June, a new bomb distribution was conducted. Killed the night watchman. One of the terrorists also died - as a result of the premature operation of an explosive device.

Both times, one of the addressees was US Attorney General Mitchell Palmer. The second bomb caused severe damage to his home. Palmer said that after the incident, the investigating authorities will act even more actively. The organizers of the explosions were quickly tracked down. Galleani and eight of his associates were expelled from the country.

Although the traces led to the Italian anarchists, the authorities made the enemy of society the number one of Russian like-minded people - the Union of Russian Workers.

In August, Palmer appointed the 24-year-old John Edgar Hoover (future head of the FBI) ​​as head of the new unit in the Department of Justice, the General Intelligence Unit of the Bureau of Investigation. He was tasked with investigating the activities of radical groups and finding out who they are. The Hoover department in the shortest possible time managed to collect dossiers for 150 thousand people.

In September, a police strike took place in Boston. In October, the US Senate passed a resolution according to which Palmer should explain exactly what actions he had taken in the fight against foreign radicals.

The Immigration Act, adopted on October 16, 1918, made it possible to recognize as a radical who can be deported any member of any organization that opposes the organized government. In the summer, before the law came into force, preparations began for the mass deportation of anarchist foreigners, including members of the Union of Russian Workers.

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After criticism in Congress, the Attorney General organized the so-called Palmer raids. On November 7, 1919, mass raids were carried out in the branches of the Union of Russian Workers, specially dedicated to the second anniversary of the Bolshevik revolution.

At Soyuz’s New York headquarters, police beat with a baton all those who were there — library visitors and evening students. Everything was covered in blood. Police jumped on those who fell to the floor.

All who did not have US citizenship were arrested - a total of 360 people.

There were even more arrested people in Detroit; they did not even have enough space behind bars. Some were placed under arrest in military barracks; the upper floors of the local post office were converted into a temporary prison.

Consider Anarchist

New candidates for deportation were constantly added to those arrested during the Palmer Raids. The owner of the company complained about the Warsaw Jew Max Braselia, who worked in a sewing factory. Brazil "spread the Bolshevik propaganda in the workplace." Harold Berger was arrested for being drunk in a public place and scolding the government. When detained, they found an IRM membership card.

Fyodor Antonchik was arrested when he was handing out flyers that he himself could not read due to his lack of knowledge of English.

The standard accusation was “an anarchist foreigner, was a member of an organization, or collaborated with an organization that advocated the violent overthrow of the United States government.” The accusation formula “may become a burden on society” was also very popular.

Mikhail Gernet was arrested for disturbing public order during a lecture by the Socialist-Revolutionary Yekaterina Breshko-Breshkovskaya, "the grandmother of the Russian revolution." Breshkovskaya criticized the Bolsheviks. Gernet called her reactionary. The police beat him to a loss of consciousness, but he did not recognize himself as an anarchist.

Gernet was a member of the Socialist Party, which was not grounds for deportation. The reason was found in the fact that he could arrange unrest in a public place, go to prison for it, and there he would already become a burden for society.

Alexander Shkilnyuk was mistakenly arrested by the military police for evading military conscription, which he was not subject to, since the naturalization process had not yet passed. Immediately after leaving the military prison, he was detained by immigration officers. Albeit illegal, but it has become a burden on society. Consequently, was subject to deportation.

Joe Kosa wanted to leave the United States and was ready to pay for a ticket for the ship. The immigration authorities happily declared him subject to deportation.

Cold dark holds

In the immigration prison on Ellis Island, the detainees fiercely debated politically, celebrated May Day, and published the newspaper Gazeta in Russian, Lithuanian, German, and Yiddish. An Ellis Island Council was organized and communism established. Weekly members of the council collected voluntary donations for which food and other necessary items were bought, distributed among those in need "according to needs."

At the end of November 1919, about seventy council members went on a five-day hunger strike, demanding that the bars in the visitor room be removed, which prevented them from touching their relatives.

And then came the day of the most massive deportation in US history - December 21 (it is unlikely that the American authorities knew that Joseph Stalin was celebrating his 40th birthday on this day).

On this day, 249 people were expelled from the United States. All of them were natives of the Russian Empire. The vast majority - 199 people - were members of the "Union of Russian Workers of the United States and Canada." Among the rest were members of the communist and socialist parties, a dozen members of the IRM and seven people who were not related to politics.

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The deportees were loaded onto the Bafford cargo ship. This ship was built in 1890 and was originally called the Mississippi. In 1898, it was acquired by the US Army for use during the Spanish-American War.

In 1919, the ship was used to return to America military personnel from Europe after the end of the First World War. Now he was to become the "red ark."

The national composition of the inhabitants of the "ark" was motley - Russians, Ukrainians, Poles, Jews, Balts, Tatar, Persians. There were three women - Emma Goldman, Ethel Bernstein and Dora Lipkina. They were given a separate cabin. 246 men got three rooms in the hold. It was dark, damp (there was water on the floor), it smelled of mold. On the way, the inhabitants of the hold were often and very ill. After a severe cold, Thomas Bukhanov lost his hearing.

The deportees were controlled by Inspector Frank Berkshire, eight immigration officers, six officers, and 58 soldiers.

The Balford was watched by the American press. The general public knew only two of the 249 names - Emma Goldman and Alexander Berkman. They did not just preach anarchist ideas, they did it in English. The young careerist Hoover considered them the main candidates for deportation.

A native of Kovno, Emma Goldman came to America in 1885. Two years later, she married another emigrant - Jacob Kerschner, but soon divorced him. Then she met a native of Vilna, Alexander Berkman, from whom she became infected with anarchist ideas. In 1892, they together prepared the assassination of Henry Clay Frick, the manager of a steel mill, where nine workers were killed during the power suppression of the strike. The killer did not come out of Berkman. He managed to shoot Frick three times and stab him in the leg with a knife, after which the workers arrived in time and attacked Berkman and severely beat him. By the time the police arrived, he was unconscious.

Alexander Berkman was sentenced to 22 years in prison. In his absence, Emma Goldman began to propagate anarchist ideas. She was arrested several times. In 1906, she founded Mother Earth, the most popular anarchist magazine in America. In the same year, Berkman was released ahead of schedule. He became editor of Mother Earth, and in 1915 began publishing his own anarchist magazine, The Blast ("Explosion"). Police suspected Berkman of involvement in several bombings.

In 1917, Goldman and Berkman created the League Against Conscription. Soon they were arrested. The court sentenced both to two years in prison, a fine of $ 10 thousand and possible deportation from the country after serving the sentence.

A native of Odessa, Petr Bianchi, general secretary of the Union of Russian Workers, editor of the newspaper Bread and Freedom, was also well-known among Russian-speaking Americans.


The first day the ship sailed to nowhere. According to the order received, exactly 24 hours after the departure, the captain of the Baford was to open the package, which indicated the destination of Kiel, Germany. There it was necessary to take on board a German military pilot, so that he led the ship through minefields in the North Sea, remaining after the war. The final point of navigation is Liepaja, Latvia.

The United States did not officially recognize Soviet Russia, so the American ship could not enter the Soviet port. I needed a mediating country. It was originally planned that she would become Latvia. The country was experiencing a severe economic crisis. In exchange for assistance with the transit of deportees to the Soviet border, the Latvian authorities requested US State Department flour, canned goods and $ 1 thousand in direct payments, as well as assistance in returning 3,5 thousand Latvian troops from Vladivostok to their homeland. Secretary of State Robert Lansing found these demands excessive. The parties managed to converge on products worth $ 4 thousand, which were proposed to be sent by the same ship as the deportees.

Balford was already approaching the Latvian coast when a new telegram from Riga arrived at the State Department. It turned out that the train from Liepaja to the border does not exist. In addition, the communist opposition of Latvia found out about the planned arrival of the anarchists. Fearing unrest, the Latvian government asked the Americans to send the deportees to some other place.

The State Department urgently contacted Finland. She formally was at war with Russia - a peace treaty has not yet been signed. Nevertheless, the Finnish government agreed, but put forward its own conditions: payment of all expenses for transporting the anarchists through Finland; deportees will be transported in sealed wagons, they will be prohibited from communicating with the local population; ten people out of 249 will be detained for the purpose of subsequent exchange for ten Finns detained in Russia. The State Department gave the green light to everything except the detention of ten people. The ship headed for the Finnish port of Hanko.

The Bufford docked at Hanko at three in the afternoon on January 16, 1920. The Finnish government warned the Soviet authorities about plans to transfer 249 people and asked for a time to cease fire on the border. No response was received from Moscow. Nevertheless, the former passengers of the Baford were seated in sealed wagons. Wagons were not heated. There was a sentry at the door of each compartment. Almost all the products intended for the deportees were stolen, so there was almost no food or drink.

At about noon on January 19, the train arrived at Terijoki Station. The deportees were ordered to walk towards the border. Some had a fear that they would be mistaken for Finnish military personnel and open fire. But on the ice of the Sestra River, along which the border passed, the anarchists were already met by the Soviet delegation of three, headed by Sergey Zorin, secretary of the Petrograd city committee of the RCP (b). Zorin lived for six years in the USA and returned to Russia after the February Revolution. He welcomed the first political refugees expelled from America for their beliefs.

On the sleigh of the anarchists and their luggage was brought to the border station Beloostrov, where they were waiting for a solemn meeting with a military band. Then, after the rally, the "Americans" were sent by train to Petrograd.

All the deportees were already in Soviet Russia, when the Finnish side finally received a return telegram. It reported that the Soviet government was ready to accept only three - Emma Goldman, Alexander Berkman and Peter Bianchi.

There will be no repetition

After the Baford voyage, Attorney General Palmer announced that 2720 more deportation cases had already been prepared and promised that he would send “the second, third and fourth Soviet ark” to Russia in the near future. That did not happen. The deportation cost the treasury $ 76 thousand, not counting the cost of returning the mourners. The immigration service had to temporarily freeze all other programs due to lack of funds.

In addition, in March 1920, Louis Post was appointed Acting Head of the Department of Labor. The immigration service was under his leadership. The post defended the rights of those who turned out to be candidates for expulsion from the country. Having discovered that many raids were carried out without a warrant or on the basis of a warrant with false information, he annulled about 3 thousand arrest decisions. He also ordered that foreigners facing deportation be granted full constitutional rights. They should now be warned that everything they say can be used against them. They must have the right to access a lawyer.

Palmer and his assistant, Hoover, began hastily looking for incriminating evidence on Lent, but could not find anything. The "deportation fever," as Post called it, is over. The deportations continued, but not on such a scale. However, this whole story did not prevent Hoover from making a brilliant career in the future.


Soviet Russia was not at all what it was imagined by the anarchists expelled from the USA.

Already on the third day after arrival, some of them were taken into custody. When Emma Goldman decided to find out what was the matter, they explained to her that this was done because there were several criminals among the arrivals.

On the subject: Deportation of your own accord: why emigrants return back

Goldman soon began to notice a lot of unpleasant and wrong things from her point of view. “I learned that the rations given to the inhabitants of the First House of Soviets (Astoria) were much better than those given to the workers in factories. Surely they weren't enough to support life, but nobody at Astoria lived on rations alone. The members of the Communist Party who lodged in Astoria worked in Smolny, and the rations in Smolny were the best in Petrograd.

In addition, trade was not yet completely suppressed. Things were going well in the markets, although no one could or did not want to explain to me where the purchasing power came from. The workers could not afford to buy oil, which then cost 2 thousand rubles. per pound, sugar - 3 thousand, meat - 1 thousand "(Emma Goldman," My disappointment in Russia ")

Another observation by Goldman: “Once I was at the watchmaker when a soldier came to him. He spoke to the owner in Yiddish, saying that he had just returned from Siberia with a load of tea. Does the watchmaker want to take fifty pounds? Tea was then sold very expensively - only a privileged minority could afford such a luxury. Of course, the watchmaker wanted to get some tea. When the soldier left, I asked the owner of the workshop if he considered it rather risky to engage in such an illegal business openly. “It turned out that I understand Yiddish,” I told him. “Is he not afraid that I will convey it to him?” “This is nonsense,” the man calmly answered, “the Cheka knows everything about this - they get their percentage from the soldier and from me. ”

Soviet anarchists complained to the anarchists who arrived from America about the persecution by the Bolsheviks, who were clearing the political field. At a conference of Moscow anarchists in March 1920, Goldman and Berkman signed a resolution addressed to Lenin with a request to release anarchists imprisoned and give permission to the anarchists to conduct educational work. The American comrades promised to talk personally with Lenin on this subject.

Their meeting with Lenin took place on March 8, 1920. “Lenin warmly welcomed me. He is below average height and bald; he has narrowed blue eyes, a steady look, lights are burning in the corners of his eyes. Outwardly, he is a typical Great Russian, but speaks with a strange, almost Jewish accent ”(A. Berkman,“ Bolshevik Myth ”). According to Goldman, “Lenin said that although he had lived in Europe for many years, he still did not learn to speak foreign languages, so the conversation should be conducted in Russian” (E. Goldman, “My Disappointment in Russia”). In response to the resolution of the Moscow anarchists, Lenin said that the CEC had discussed this issue and would take action soon. “We do not persecute the anarchists for ideas, but we will not tolerate armed resistance or agitation of this kind,” he said.

Subsequently, Goldman and Berkman more than once had to intercede with Lenin for the arrested anarchists, but most often without success.

The final disappointment in Soviet reality came at Goldman and Berkman after the suppression of the Kronstadt rebellion. This time they used their authority in order to obtain permission to leave Soviet Russia. In December 1921 they left the country. In the West, both almost immediately began to write books criticizing the Bolshevik regime.

In 1933, Goldman even managed to obtain permission to enter the United States, where she spent three months giving lectures. She died in 1940 in Toronto.

Alexander Berkman committed suicide in Nice in 1936.

Peter Bianchi soon after his arrival actively joined in socialist construction. He worked in the Sibrevkom in Omsk, in the Narva-Petergof district party committee, in the Petrograd branch of the Third International, sailed as an assistant commissar on the Transbalt motor ship of the Baltic Fleet, worked in Sev.-Zap. Movie". At the beginning of NEP, he was promoted to Commercial Director at the Vienna beer factory in Petrograd. In March, in the Ust-Pristan District of the Biysk District of the Siberian Territory, the so-called Dobytinsky rebellion - an anti-Soviet armed uprising, led by an extremely amazing figure - authorized OGPU Frol Dobytin. The rebels shot nine activists. Among the dead was the recently appointed director of the farm "Charyshsky" Peter Bianchi. His name still bears a street in the village of Charyshskoye. His daughter, PhD in Biology, Louise Bianchi passed away in 2006.

On September 16, 1938, at the Kommunarka firing range, Lev Chizhevsky, the chief engineer of the TPP of Syassky Pulp and Paper Mill, was shot. Hyman (Nicephorus) Percus was also shot in the 1930s.

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Ivan Kabas-Tarasyuk in the autumn of 1920 was arrested and placed in Butyrka prison, in 1921 he was sentenced to two years in prison for "communication with the underground anarchists," he was serving his sentence in the Ryazan concentration camp (according to other sources, he escaped from Ryazan prison). In 1925, for “communication with emigration,” he was exiled to Petropavlovsk for three years, and at the end of his sentence, to Tashkent for the same term. The further fate is unknown.

The leader of the IRM, Bill Haywood, who was sentenced to the USA for 20 years in prison, unexpectedly ended up in the Soviet Union. Coming out on bail during the appeal, he fled the United States. In Russia, he lived until 1928, died of diabetes and chronic alcoholism.

The Steamboat Bafford was sold in 1923. In 1924, the film “Navigator” was shot on it with Buster Keaton, in 1929 the ship was handed over for scrap.

Also edition "Komersant" published a list of natives of the Russian Empire deported from the United States on the Steamship Baford in December 1919. The list of deportees is given in accordance with the publication of the transcript of the hearings at the Subcommittee on Immigration and Naturalization of the US House of Representatives on April 21-24, 1920.

Many names and surnames in the original list are written with obvious errors, in such cases the English version is given in brackets. Names and surnames that were rechecked by other sources, primarily on biographical information in the Emma Goldman's Papers project, have been fixed.

Names are given in the English version ("Paul" instead of "Pavel", "John" instead of "Ivan") in the absence of documents in which there is a Russian version. Also, for all persons on the list, the place and date of arrest before deportation is indicated.

On the subject: list of natives of the Russian Empire deported from the US on the steamship Baford in December 1919

  • Naum Stepanyuk (Cleveland, Ohio, December 12, 1917)
  • Ivan (Kabas) -Tarasyuk (Cleveland, Ohio, December 12, 1917)
  • Paul Krachie or Krachie (Cleveland, Ohio, December 12, 1917)
  • Leo Haskevich (Cleveland, Ohio, December 12, 1917)
  • Kronagi Workolf (Pittsburgh, PA, June 12, 1919)
  • Thomas Prosk (New Haven, Connecticut, April 29, 1919)
  • Anton Trzpiot (Cleveland, Ohio, June 11, 1919)
  • Daniel Levchuk (Buffalo, New York, NY, November 13, 1919)
  • Wm Lovna (Wm. Lowna) (Elizabeth, New Jersey, November 25, 1919)
  • John Brunert (Baltimore, Maryland, November 14, 1919)
  • Ivan Novikov (New York, New York, November 9, 1919)
  • Dmitry Panko (New York, New York, November 10, 1919)
  • Mike Sigan (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Maxim Chineiko (New York, New York, November 9, 1919)
  • Ivan Veremink (New York, New York, November 5, 1919)
  • Arthur Lesiga (New York, NY, December 4, 1919)
  • Peter Novick (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Gregory Melnikov (New York, NY, November 11, 1919)
  • Harry or Alexander Schatz (New York, New York, November 8, 1919)
  • Anton Andronsyuk (Buffalo, New York, New York, November 13, 1919)
  • Lev Ilyich Chizhevsky (Buffalo, New York, New York, November 17, 1919)
  • Stanislav Chizhevsky (Buffalo,? New York, New York, November 15, 1919)
  • Gregory Koroviansky (Buffalo, New York, New York, November 17, 1919)
  • Vladimir Borisink (Hartford, Connecticut, November 7, 1919)
  • Steve Kaminsky (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Efim Kokhovets (Hartford, Connecticut, November 22, 1919)
  • Ananiy Nazarchuk (Hartford, Connecticut, November 8, 1919)
  • John the Philosopher (Hartford, Connecticut, November 14, 1919)
  • George Wolves (Hartford, Connecticut, November 21, 1919)
  • Michal Yaroshevich (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 10, 1919)
  • Andrew Yaroshevich (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Gordic Stolatchuk (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Ivan Sanko (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 6, 1919)
  • Andy Sereck (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 14, 1919)
  • Demian Rozniuk (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Trofim Momotyuk (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Simon Kuish (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Paul Krupka (East Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • George Kalteyika (Kaltejika) (Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Andrew Dedinschka (Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Zenov Bogen (Hartford, Connecticut, November 17, 1919)
  • Frank Bycharsky (Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Michael Leshchuk (Philadelphia, PA, November 11, 1919)
  • Peter Urkevich (Philadelphia, PA, November 11, 1919)
  • George Garoshkov or Gorshkov, pseudonym Ivan Balul or Balui (Greensburg, PA, November 12, 1919)
  • Roman Mosischuk (Philadelphia, PA, November 13, 1919)
  • Jacob Zboromirsky (Greensburg, PA, November 12, 1919)
  • Vasil Konyakin (Akron, Ohio, November 8, 1919)
  • John Kaleanoff (Akron, Ohio, November 10, 1919)
  • Joe Vasilenko (Hartford, Connecticut, November 8, 1919)
  • Fred Soloneki (Hartford, Connecticut, December 8, 1919)
  • Mark Kulish (Hartford, Connecticut, December 7, 1919)
  • John Martinovsky (Hartford, Connecticut, November 7, 1919)
  • Roman Andrink (Andrink) (New York, NY, November 9, 1919)
  • Abe Brooke (New York, NY, November 8, 1919)
  • Dora Lipkina (New York, NY, November 9, 1919)
  • Benge. Afanasevich (New York, New York, November 6, 1919)
  • Boris Schatz (New York, New York, November 10, 1919)
  • Nikita Zafronya (Zafronia ((New York, New York, November 9, 1919)
  • Mike Serba (Baltimore, Maryland, November 19, 1919)
  • Osip Stepanov (Buffalo, New York, New York, November 18, 1919)
  • Fred. Spring (Philadelphia, PA, November 13, 1919)
  • Paul Golovkin (Baltimore, Maryland, November 21, 1919)
  • Andrew Balash (Hartford, Connecticut, November 11, 1919)
  • Eustathius Sulawka (Hartford, Connecticut, November 17, 1919)
  • Mike Schweikus (Hartford, Connecticut, November 11, 1919)
  • John Batman (Hartford, Connecticut, November 11, 1919)
  • Tony Carson (Hartford, Connecticut, November 11, 1919)
  • Porfiry Onishchenko (Buffalo, New York, New York, November 8, 1919)
  • Efin Tadzizieg (Baltimore, Maryland, November 8, 1919)
  • Paul Yakimov (Philadelphia, PA, November 11, 1919)
  • Vasily Vashchuk (Philadelphia, PA, November 11, 1919)
  • Nikita Eskimashko (Philadelphia, PA, November 14, 1919)
  • John Cozy (Kozy) (Philadelphia, PA, November 13, 1919)
  • Nikolai Ohrimuk (New York, New York, November 10, 1919)
  • John Newar (Newar, New York, November 11, 1919)
  • Tony Federalo (Federaco) (New York, NY, November 11, 1919)
  • Daniel Rice (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Joe Kosa (New York, NY, November 11, 1919)
  • Nikolai Kuropato (New York, New York, November 8, 1919)
  • Andrew Lazarevich or Lazarovich ((New York, New York, November 10, 1919)
  • Mikhail Savitsky (New York, New York, November 11, 1919)
  • John Yermola (New York, NY, November 11, 1919)
  • Peter Urgel (New York, NY, November 11, 1919)
  • Alexander Konol (Konol) (New York, New York, November 8, 1919)
  • Andrew Hostilla (Hostilla) (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Matthew Podlipsky (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Boris Keretchuk (New York, New York, November 8, 1919)
  • Ivan Kozlik (New York, New York, November 10, 1919)
  • Theodor Proshkovich (New York, New York, November 8, 1919)
  • Thomas Fers (New York, NY, November 8, 1919)
  • Maxim Vorobey (Hartford, Connecticut, November 28, 1919)
  • Steve Prokopovich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 12, 1919)
  • Konstantin Demyanovich Draco (Hartford, Connecticut, November 27, 1919)
  • Vladimir Archuk (Hartford, Connecticut, November 12, 1919)
  • Nicholas Mlaverausky (Hartford, Connecticut, November 21, 1919)
  • Terentias Leonov (Hartford, Connecticut, November 25, 1919)
  • Mike Zdanovich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 25, 1919)
  • John Guscha (Hartford, Connecticut, November 24, 1919)
  • Lukez Shohidko (Hartford, Connecticut, November 24, 1919)
  • Mikhail Demyanovich Butzvekich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 28, 1919)
  • Mike Legeze (Hartford, Connecticut, November 24, 1919)
  • Dmitry Yasinsky (Hartford, Connecticut, November 11, 1919)
  • Anton Kotyak (Hartford, Connecticut, November 25, 1919)
  • Mike Vsiko (Hartford, Connecticut, November 20, 1919)
  • Basil Balick (Hartford, Connecticut, November 26, 1919)
  • Ivan Danilovich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 26, 1919)
  • Anthony Anisienia (Hartford, Connecticut, November 25, 1919)
  • Nestor Mikhailovich Sheleg (Hartford, Connecticut, November 28, 1919)
  • David Sukhov (Hartford, Connecticut, November 25, 1919)
  • Paul Nestoruk (Hartford, Connecticut, November 26, 1919)
  • Konstantin Romanchuk (Hartford, Connecticut, November 26, 1919)
  • Ivan Nabagez (Hartford, Connecticut, November 24, 1919)
  • Zachary Waseiko (Hartford, Connecticut, November 25, 1919)
  • Nestor Walter Zubko (Hartford, Connecticut, November 12, 1919)
  • Jacob Kovalevich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 12, 1919)
  • Ignac Vorobiev (Hartford, Connecticut, November 18, 1919)
  • Samuel Barkovsky (Hartford, Connecticut, November 19, 1919)
  • Alexander Serevetnik (Hartford, Connecticut, November 24, 1919)
  • Louis Kostevich (Baltimore, Maryland, November 10, 1919)
  • Gavril Mikhnevich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 13, 1919)
  • James Manndeloe (Greensburg, PA, November 19, 1919)
  • Harry or Gregory Skochuk or Skoscuk (New York, New York, November 11, 1919)
  • Joseph Polulek, pseudonym Balluleck (Poluleck) (New York, New York, November 13, 1919)
  • Yakim Denisyuk (Chester, PA, November 11, 1919)
  • Yefim Kolesnikov (New York, New York, November 15, 1919)
  • Tony Korshaykov or Korshikov (New York, New York, November 15, 1919)
  • Anton Lipsky (New York, New York, November 21, 1919)
  • Louis Ristic (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Harry Wodner or Wardner (New York, NY, November 15, 1919)
  • Andy Prauk or Prank (Greensburg, PA, November 21, 1919)
  • Ortyub Zubrick (Greensburg, PA, November 21, 1919)
  • Andrew Geray (Greensburg, PA, November 21, 1919)
  • Andy Chigraev (Greensburg, PA, November 21, 1919)
  • Jacob Berov (Greensburg, PA, November 19, 1919)
  • Nicephorus Zharko (Baltimore, Maryland, November 26, 1919)
  • Michael Zatyn (Baltimore, Maryland, November 26, 1919)
  • Michael Lavrynyuk (New York, New York, November 17, 1919)
  • Ilya Kovalsky (Ansonia, Connecticut, November 7, 1919)
  • Peter Magyar (Cleveland, Ohio, November 11, 1919)
  • Boris Borsuk (Cleveland, Ohio, September 18, 1919)
  • Andy Smal (Youngstown, Ohio, November 21, 1919)
  • Peter Gerashevich (Youngstown, Ohio, November 21, 1919)
  • Leon Hrikalyuk or Leo Chikalyuk (Greensburg, PA, November 26, 1919)
  • Thomas Hare (Greensburg, PA, November 26, 1919)
  • Frank Nikolaev (Greensburg, PA, November 26, 1919)
  • Mike Yanish (Greensburg, PA, November 26, 1919)
  • Fedor Kushnarev, pseudonym Alexander Dalney (South Bethelham, PA, March 4, 1919)
  • Egor Matveevich Feskov (Hartford, Connecticut, November 27, 1919)
  • Vasily Ivanovich Tarasyak (Hartford, Connecticut, November 27, 1919)
  • Kirill Fengol (Hartford, Connecticut, November 21, 1919)
  • Peter Mironovich (Hartford, Connecticut, November 27, 1919)
  • Konstantin Petrashka (Hartford, Connecticut, November 20, 1919)
  • Vasily Malevsky (Akron, Ohio, November 26, 1919)
  • William Lukov (Yansgtown, Ohio, December 2, 1919)
  • Jacob Sevuk (Yansgtown, Ohio, December 2, 1919)
  • Nick Telatitsky (Yansgtown, Ohio, December 1, 1919)
  • Eugi Starikevich (Yansgtown, Ohio, December 2, 1919)
  • Peter Dolgag (Yansgtown, Ohio, December 1, 1919)
  • John Konik (Yansgtown, Ohio, December 1, 1919)
  • Gordey Sheika (Yansgtown, Ohio, November 25, 1919)
  • Sergey Savchuk (Baltimore, Maryland, November 28, 1919)
  • Orteof Sahtabnog (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Konstantin Skorohod (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 3, 1919)
  • George Voloch (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Basil Belousov (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • William Yakum (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Theodore Krishtop (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Procopius Losev (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Vasil Kozlov (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Ivan Elko (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 3, 1919)
  • Arkhip Libed (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 3, 1919)
  • Moses Volesinyuk (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 3, 1919)
  • Artemy Pavlyuk (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Parfen Tabenko (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Yakim Novik (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Luka Kachanov (Hartford, Connecticut, December 6, 1919)
  • Ivan Morgolenkov (Baltimore, Maryland, December 3, 1919)
  • Andrew Mazaruk (New York, NY, December 5, 1919)
  • Samuel Canovich (New York, New York, December 12, 1919)
  • Nikolai Volosyuk (South Bethelham, PA, March 6, 1919)
  • Eustace Svenko (Akron, Ohio, November 10, 1919)
  • Anton Stepanov (Buffalo, New York, New York, November 15, 1919)
  • Ephraim Potemkin (Greensburg, PA, November 26, 1919)
  • Pavel Melnikov (San Francisco, California, May 3, 1919)
  • Frank Brodia (Pittsburgh, PA, May 7, 1919)
  • Mikhail Degtyarev (Pittsburgh, PA, November 11, 1919)
  • Vincent Marcin (Martzin) (New York, NY, December 12, 1919)
  • Kirio Fedyk (Hartford, Connecticut, November 21, 1919)
  • Sam Orlov (Morgantown, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Andrew Lopitsky (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Stepan Zedik (Baltimore, Maryland, February 19, 1919)
  • Adolf Schrabel-Delass (Pittsburgh, PA, February 17, 1919)
  • Michael Belest (Pittsburgh, PA, April 8, 1919)
  • David Ilak (Eelak) (Pittsburgh, PA, July 19, 1919)
  • Tom Turk (New York, NY, November 11, 1919)
  • Nicholas Vasiliev (New York, New York, November 10, 1919)
  • Anthony Lovonetsky (Greensburg, PA, November 19, 1919)
  • Ivan Dubov (New York, New York, November 5, 1919)
  • Fred Gazeyeg (Akron, Ohio, November 24, 1919)
  • Evgraf Kovalenko (Pittsburgh, PA, May 12, 1919)
  • George Chizhik (Cleveland, Ohio, February 25, 1919)
  • Michael Abrosimov (New York, New York, November 15, 1919)
  • Jim Komar (Youngstown, Ohio, December 15, 1919)
  • Frank Kovalevich (Akron, Ohio, November 24, 1919)
  • Peter Novikov (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Jacotonsky (Youngstown, Ohio, November 9, 1919)
  • Dmitry Ivanyuk (Camden, New York, May 7, 1919)
  • Alexander Chernov (Waterbury, Connecticut, May 26, 1919)
  • Tikhon Krasnov (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Thomas P. Bukhanov (New York, New York, December 14, 1919)
  • Nicholas Mikhailov (Newark, New York, March 12, 1919)
  • Hyman or Nicephorus Percus (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Alexander Berkman (Federal Penitentiary, Atlanta, Georgia, August 13, 1919)
  • Emma Goldman (Federal Prison Office, Jefferson City, Missouri, September 13, 1919)
  • Morris Becker (Federal Penitentiary, Atlanta, Georgia, October 27, 1919)
  • Alexey Nishankov (Detroit, Michigan, February 12, 1919)
  • Mikal or Mikhail (Mickal) Kudreiko or Kravchuk (New York, New York, July 28, 1918)
  • John Janson (Laramie, Wyoming, July 8, 1918)
  • Kazis Mascalunas (Seattle, Washington, January 31, 1918)
  • Hussein Tagiyev (Detroit, MI, February 28, 1919)
  • William Bendic (Cleveland, Ohio, June 26, 1919)
  • Fredrick Harold Berger (San Francisco, California, February 19, 1918)
  • Sam Meshkov (Pittsburgh, PA, August 13, 1919)
  • Fedor Antonchik (New York, New York, December 4, 1919)
  • Max Brazil (St. Louis, Missouri, March 5, 1919)
  • Alexander Derkoch or Derkoch (New York, New York, December 14, 1919)
  • Alphonse or Alfonso Gaidak or Gaiduk (New York, NY, November 10, 1919)
  • Alex Antonov (Pittsburgh, PA, April 4, 1919)
  • Marcus Oradovsky (New York, New York, July 2, 1919)
  • Barnet Kirson (Buffalo, New York, November 12, 1919)
  • Sam Sausage (Fairmont, West Virginia, December 2, 1919)
  • Mike Orlov (Morgantown, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Ethel Bernstein (New York, NY, November 9, 1919)
  • Peter Bianchi (New York, NY, March 21, 1919)
  • Arthur Ketsas or Ketsus (New York, New York, June 19, 1919)
  • Alex Winnick (Morgantown, West Virginia, December 1, 1919)
  • Alexander Shkilunk (Fort Leavenworth, Kansas, July 1, 1919)
  • Michael Gernet (Detroit, MI, May 2, 1919)
  • Pete Pavlas (Pawlas) (Cleveland, Ohio, January 31, 1919)
  • Ivan Fedosky (Detroit, MI, April 29, 1919)
  • Ketia (Ketia) Fedorovich Molkovsky (Seattle, Washington, September 13, 1919)
  • Yankel Beiger (Philadelphia, PA, September 1, 1916 was arrested for theft, June 26, 1919 a decision was made on deportation)
  • Osipoff Kurinsky (Omaha, Nebraska, January 30, 1919)
  • Samuel Lemberg (Federal Penitentiary Institution, Atlanta, Georgia, April 24, 1914 arrested for pimping, deportation decision made in December 1919)
  • Sebastian Censor (Seattle, Washington, August 7, 1918)
  • Mike Shell (Western Prison, Rockview, PA, June 12, 1918)
  • Seelof Grant (State Penitentiary, Waupum, Wisconsin, May 9, 1918)
  • Joseph Mucha (State Penitentiary, Monroe, Washington, April 18, 1918)

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