Survey: Which industries most often employ immigrants in the USA
According to the survey Pew Research CenterFrom April 29 to May 5, most Americans agree that immigrants (both legal and non-legal) generally do not work in the positions that US citizens want to occupy. This is indicated both in racial and ethnic groups, and in both political parties.
This is especially true when it comes to unregistered immigrants. About three-quarters of the adult population (77%) say undocumented immigrants primarily take jobs that US citizens do not apply for, while 21% say undocumented immigrants find jobs that US citizens would like to take. .
Hispanics (88%) are convinced that undocumented immigrants primarily occupy vacancies that are not of interest to US citizens. Most often, Hispanic immigrants say this, and not those Hispanics who were born in the United States (94% versus 82%). For comparison, similar proportions of white (75%) and dark-skinned (71%) adults say the same thing.
The results have changed little since August 2019, when 77% of American adults said undocumented immigrants were taking jobs that US citizens were not interested in. The survey was conducted amid growing job losses across the country during the COVID-19 outbreak. The US unemployment rate rose to 14,7% in April, up from 4,4% in March, the highest monthly rate since 1948. In May, it was 13,3%. A poll conducted in April-May showed that most Americans say the federal government is not responsible for providing economic assistance to undocumented immigrants who have lost their jobs due to the outbreak of coronavirus infection.
Some of the biggest differences in views are related to parties. The vast majority of Democrats and Independent Democrats (87%) say that immigrants take jobs that Americans do not want to do, compared with 66% of Republicans and independent Republicans. Nevertheless, inter-party differences are much wider on other issues related to illegal immigrants.
Differences also exist depending on the level of education. Most U.S. adults with a postgraduate degree (88%) and a bachelor's degree (84%) believe that undocumented immigrants mostly apply for jobs that US citizens do not apply for, compared to 78% among those who have not studied for long. college, and 69% of those who have only a high school diploma or lower.
Most Americans from different groups believe that legal immigrants currently in the country tend to take jobs that are not interesting to US citizens. Almost two-thirds (64%) of Americans say this, including a similar proportion of whites and blacks (62% each). Roughly three quarters of Hispanics (74%) are of the same opinion, with Hispanic immigrants (81%) being higher than those of Hispanics born in the United States (68%). About 70% of the 42 million Hispanic adults in the United States have close ties to immigrants - approximately 19 million are themselves immigrants, and nearly 10 million born in the United States have at least one immigrant parent, according to population estimates in 2019 and 2020 ...
Many legally resident immigrants in the United States take jobs that the federal government deems necessary. In particular, this is 2,7 million people working in the health sector, or almost 15% of all health workers as of 2017, the most recent year with known data.
U.S. immigrant unauthorized workers
An estimated 7,6 million unregistered (unauthorized) immigrants worked in the United States as of 2017 (compared with 8,3 million in 2008), representing almost 5% of all workers in the United States.
About 750 unauthorized immigrants worked in industries that produce and distribute food: food production (000), food processing (290), food retail (000), and food distribution (210). During the outbreak of COVID-000, these industries, considered part of the country's food supply chain, remained the so-called core jobs. In 170, unauthorized immigrants in these four industry groups accounted for more than 000% of food workers, nearly double their share of all US workers. Together, legal and unauthorized immigrants accounted for almost a quarter (70%) of about 000 million food workers in the country.
Many undocumented immigrants work in industries where there is a risk of job loss during the current outbreak of coronavirus, as they are engaged in work that is difficult to perform remotely. Overall, 84% of undocumented immigrant workers had this kind of work in 2017, including in the service sector (2,3 million workers) and the construction sector (1,3 million workers). For comparison, 62% of US workers held these types of jobs.
The Trump administration has largely stopped legal immigration to the United States in recent months, although it temporarily changed visa rules for foreign guest workers to make it easier for them to stay in meat processing and other food and agricultural jobs. Although unauthorized immigration has slowed in recent years, especially this spring due to the coronavirus pandemic.
In 2017, California had about 6,7 million immigrant workers - the largest in the country, accounting for nearly a quarter of all immigrant workers in the United States. The state had 5,2 million legal immigrant workers (24% of all legal immigrant workers in the United States) and 1,5 million unauthorized immigrant workers (20% of all illegal migrant workers in the United States). Texas was home to the next-largest immigrant workforce, with 2,1 million legal and 1,1 million unauthorized immigrant workers.
In California, about 570 immigrants worked in the food production and distribution industries that make up the national food chain, the largest share in the country as of 000. They account for about half of the state's workers in these industries: 2017% are legal immigrants and 33% are illegal immigrants. In Texas, 17 immigrants work in the food industry, the next highest. They make up 170% of the state catering workers: 000% are legal immigrants and 28% are illegal.
US Immigrant Industries and Activities
Unauthorized immigrants made up nearly 5% of the U.S. workforce in 2017, while legal immigrants made up about 13% of workers.
In industries where the employer owns the business, immigrants accounted for more than a quarter of workers in the agricultural sector, which is the highest in the industry. Unauthorized (14%) and legal (15%) immigrants made up almost equal shares of agricultural workers.
Compared to their share in the total US workforce, a relatively high proportion of illegal immigrants also worked in industries such as construction (12%), leisure and hospitality (8%), personal and other services (7%), and manufacturing (6 %). While the share of legal immigrants in construction in the USA (13%) was similar to the share of illegal immigrants, legal immigrants accounted for a higher percentage of workers in personal and other services (15%), manufacturing (14%), and also in the field of leisure and hospitality (12%).
As for the type of work, immigrants are most represented in agriculture, where, as of 2017, illegal (22%) and legal (over 21%) immigrants accounted for more than four-tenths of all workers. In construction work, unauthorized immigrants accounted for 15% of workers, more than three times the share of all U.S. workers. Whereas 13% of legal immigrants worked in construction - similar to their share among workers in general.
Compared to their share in the total US workforce, unauthorized immigrants had a greater presence in manufacturing (8%), services (8%), and the transportation and material handling industries (6%). Meanwhile, the share of legal immigrants in these areas was similar to their share among the US workforce as a whole.
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