Where and How Americans Learn: Useful Terms in English
Author of the channel "Easy Speak - School of English" on Yandex.Zen suggests talking about educational institutions. What to call a kindergarten, school, university in English? Education systems vary from country to country. These are the educational institutions in the United States.
So let's start with the smallest "learners".
The least formal “education” children begin to receive in playgroups.
- playgroup / ˈpleɪɡruːp - playgroup / - game group;
- play (play) + group (group)
In America playgroup Is a group created by parents where children can socialize and play together. This is especially common in areas where homeschooling is popular. Age restrictions are set individually in each group.
Then more formal training begins - early childhood education - early (preschool) education for children.
- early / ˈɜːli / - early;
- childhood / ˈtʃaɪldhʊd - tealdhud / - childhood;
- education / ˌedjʊˈkeɪʃən - education / - education, i.e. learning process at school, college, university.
It is divided into several stages:
nursery school / ˈNɜːsəri skuːl - nyosari skul / - a place where young children are taken care of while their parents are at work. Something like our nursery + kindergarten, where you can send a child almost from birth to 5 years. When a child reaches a certain stage in his development, they begin not just to play with him, but to conduct the first lessons.
pre-K / priː keɪ - for kei / or pre-kindergarten / priː ˈkɪndəɡɑːtn - for kindegatn / - pre (before, before) + kindergarten (kindergarten, see below). Children 4-5 years old come here, where they already learn much more than just colors, numbers, shapes, etc.
kindergarten / ˈKɪndəɡɑːtn - kindegatn / - from German kinder (child) + garten (garden). Here children 5-6 years old are directly preparing for school. Kindergarten is sometimes even included in the primary school system (as a kindergarten).
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Next comes school education, which is divided into:
elementary school / ˌEləˈmentəri skuːl - elementary skul / - elementary school, which lasts from 1 to 4 or 5 grade (depending on the state).
grade / ɡreɪd - grade / - class, year of schooling. There are only 12 grades in the American education system.
middle school / ˈMɪdl skuːl - middle school / - secondary school, from 6 to 8 grades.
high school / haɪ skuːl - high school / - high school, from 9 to 12 grades. In high school, as a rule, there are part of the compulsory subjects and part of the subjects to choose from. Depending on their plans for the future, students choose what suits them best. This could be:
- Arts / ɑːts - automatic telephone exchange / - directions of art, for example, music, photography, pottery;
- Computer technologies / kəmˈpjuːtə tekˈnɒlədʒiz - computer teknolodzhiz / - computer technologies, for example, the study of graphic applications or web design;
- Vocational training / vəʊˈkeɪʃənəl ˈtreɪnɪŋ - vukeyshenal trainin / - practical training aimed directly at mastering new skills. For example, it can be car repair or patient care.
Also in high school there is an opportunity to pass advanced placement program.
- advanced / ədˈvɑːnst - edvanst / - advanced, advanced, that is, having a more difficult level;
- placement / ˈpleɪsmənt - placemant / - placement somewhere;
- program / ˈprəʊɡræm - progrem / - program, training course.
Those. advanced placement program (AP) is an advanced program that American students can take in high school to prepare for further university studies. It replaces the first academic semesters of the university. There are 38 different courses in AP in total. Students choose those that are required to study at their chosen university - someone takes AP World History (program in world history), and someone takes AP Biology (program in biology). And high scores at the end of its passage guarantee admission immediately to the second year of the university in many universities.
Higher - higher / ˈHaɪə - ha'ye / education - optional. It is received within 4 years at a college or university, receiving a bachelor's degree or, after studying for another 2 years, a master's degree. Higher education can be obtained at college or university. The latter are distinguished by the presence of a more thorough research part.
College / ˈKɒlɪdʒ - kolidge / - college, higher educational institution in the United States. In colloquial speech, usually any higher educational institution in the country is called college.
University / ˌJuːnəˈvɜːsəti - univeseti / - university, higher educational institution.
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Autumn is just the time to study. Children go to kindergarten, school, university ... Adults also decide to learn something new: someone is mastering languages, someone is fond of pottery, but you never know everything interesting around. Let's not stand still and continue to develop.
Original column published on the blog. "Easy Speak - School of English" on Yandex.Zen
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