20 of the unexpected effects of the weather: the heat provokes stupidity and a desire to fight
Is it true that in hot weather people become aggressive, sexually preoccupied and more tired? News of Israel in Russian, collected all the new discoveries of scientists on this topic.
Doctors have long warned of such a phenomenon as "heat exhaustion." It develops in people who have been exposed to heat for a long time - working outdoors in the summer or living indoors without air conditioning. Heat exhaustion causes fatigue, apathy or irritability, interruptions in the work of the kidneys and the heart.
But it turns out that this is not the only effect of heat on our body. And every year the heat exhaustion is taking over more and more countries and people - because of global warming.
This is what scientists warn about:
1. I'm hot, therefore I'm stupid?
When we are hot, the quality of the brain decreases. Professor Joe Allen of Harvard University conducted a study during particularly hot weather in Boston, comparing two groups of students.
The first one lived in a building with central air conditioning, the temperature in it was pleasant - 22 degrees, and the second one lived in rooms without air conditioning, where the average temperature was 27 degrees.
Every morning, when students woke up, they received tasks on their phones that could be used to evaluate information processing speed, memory and concentration. For those who slept in the heat, the indicators for elementary arithmetic problems were 13 percent lower, and by the number of correct answers per minute - 10 percent lower.
2. We were better in Europe
The inhabitants of cold countries on average have a higher level of intelligence. Psychologist Joseph Ryan from the University of Missouri compared the results of standard IQ tests that American students take in 4, 8 and 12 classes with local weather and found that the higher the temperature, the lower the IQ. Psychologists from the University of California conducted a similar study comparing the 120 countries of the world, and came to the same conclusion.
3. Do not leave the child in the sun: become poor
Infants under one year of age who are exposed to extreme heat (more than 32 degrees), grow up and become people who earn less than the average. Every day, at temperatures above 32 degrees, an additional decrease in their annual income by 0,1% in the age of 30 years.
This unexpected finding was made by three scientists from the University of Berkeley, the University of Arizona and Stanford University. They used 12 data of millions of Americans born between 1969 and 1977 for years, and weather information that prevailed during this period.
The authors of the study do not explain their results, but emphasize the high sensitivity of infants to heat, because their nervous system is not yet fully developed.
4. Don't be born in summer
According to a study conducted by the European College of Neuropsychopharmacology in 2014, children born in the summer are more nervous than those born in other seasons, and their behavior is characterized by frequent and rapid transitions between sadness and joy.
Children born in spring are more positive, those born in winter are less irritable, while those born in autumn are less prone to depression.
5. The better the air conditioner, the better we work
Employee productivity peaks when the temperature in the office is about 22 degrees, researchers at Berkeley University found.
When it exceeds 24 degrees, the quality of work begins to decrease, and with 30 degrees, performance decreases by 9%.
6. Time to kill
As the heat rises, the “fuses” in the head often blow. A meta-study conducted in 2013 by three scientists from the universities of Berkeley and Princeton analyzed the 60 research on the relationship of climate and human conflict. It was found that in times of drought, the level of domestic violence increased dramatically.
The authors of the study suggest that increasing the temperature gives impetus to larger-scale conflicts, inter-ethnic and interstate clashes.
7. Up to mental disorders
The American Psychological Association views extreme weather events as a source of injury: they can cause depression and anxiety. The heat that occurred in Ontario, Canada, in early July 2012, when temperatures were approaching 50 degrees, caused the psychiatric ward at the Windsor Regional Hospital to be completely full.
8. Air conditioning is required for courtesy
When we are hot, we become unpleasant in communication. Last year, two American researchers published a series of three studies that proved this. In one of them, scientists followed salespeople in a large store in Moscow, including a heat wave in 2010, and found that in the heat they were less friendly with customers, less helpful, less information about products.
9. Summer of love
The summer heat stimulates the libido and creates physical conditions that favor sex. Increases the level of vitamin D in the body, which increases the level of testosterone associated with sexual desire.
10. Flirt Season
On warm sunny days, the success of flirting is almost guaranteed. Professor Nicola Gauguin from the University of South Brittany found out how the weather affects courtship.
He sent a handsome 20-year-old boy to meet girls. The guy came up to the girls, introduced himself and asked them for a phone number to call later. The experiment was repeated on warm sunny days and overcast days, and women were more willing to give their numbers on sunny days (22,4%) than on overcast days (13,9%).
11. Even batteries run out before
Each temperature increase of 8 degrees reduces the life of the lead battery by half. For example, a VRLA rechargeable battery with a life span of 10 for years at 25 degrees Celsius will only work for five years if it is constantly exposed to a temperature of 33 degrees, and will last less than three years at a temperature of 41 degrees.
The car battery can be used for 59 months in cold areas and 47 months in hot.
12. World in fire
30% of the world's population is currently experiencing at least 20 days of catastrophic heat per year, and by 2100, this nightmare will be experiencing 48% of the world's population. And this is considered a relatively optimistic estimate based on the assumption that we can reduce greenhouse gas emissions.
Between 1980 and 2014 in 164, 36 countries in the countries of 783 experienced catastrophic heat waves, killing tens of thousands of people. According to researchers, if greenhouse gas emissions increase, 74% of the world's population will be subject to deadly heat waves.
13. Men suffer from heat worse
In the period from 2000 to 2010, the 8081 year of the American died from extreme heat, and 72% of them - because of its direct impact. Most of the dead (69%) were men.
14. Who is the worst in the heat
Severe heat is especially dangerous for the following groups: children up to 4 years old, adults older than 65 years old, overweight, suffering from chronic diseases such as diabetes and heart disease, poor (who find it difficult to pay for air conditioning) and socially isolated people (no one will notice them Problems).
Even for healthy young people, fever can be dangerous if they are engaged in strenuous physical activities, drink alcohol or take medicines that interfere with the body's ability to regulate temperature.
15. City steam room
In the city center is usually warmer than on the outskirts. According to the US Environmental Protection Agency, the temperature gap between the city center and its outskirts can reach 12 degrees.
This is a relatively new climatic phenomenon created by a man who uprooted vegetation, covered the earth with asphalt and built stone buildings, the walls of which absorb and accumulate heat.
16. Climate Refugees
By 2100, a fifth of the world's population (2 billion people) will leave their homes because of the effects of global warming, primarily sea level rise. This is the conclusion of a particularly pessimistic study conducted last year at Cornell University.
17. It's hard to fly from Israel
Aircraft can not safely fly in very high temperatures, so dozens of commercial flights were canceled or delayed as a result of recent heat waves. Hot air affects the physics of the flight of an aircraft: the lift force that a wing can create depends on the density of the air, and the higher the temperature, the lower the density of the gas.
In such a situation, the aircraft needs a longer runway to pick up speed for takeoff. The only option is to reduce the weight of the aircraft or postpone the flight until the heat subsides.
18. Cat in the summer eats without appetite
Not only people lose their appetite in the heat. A group of British and French researchers published in 2014 year in the journal PLoS One the results of observations made over six years on 38 cats in the south of France. Cats could choose when to eat, and could move freely between the house and the yard. They ate the most during the winter months, from October to February. In June, July and August, they ate up 15% less food compared to December. This is because as the temperature rises, mammals become less active and require less energy.
19. Cool and get sick
Air conditioning is the best friend in the heat, but it can also become an enemy. Humidity in air conditioning systems contributes to the development of bacteria and fungi in them, and air flows carry them everywhere.
That is why air conditioners can worsen the condition of asthmatics and people with allergies. The worst is the so-called “sick building syndrome”: office workers in rooms with central air conditioning systems often suffer from nasal congestion, difficulty breathing, headaches, fatigue and skin irritation.
20. How to survive without air conditioning
What can do the one who does not have air conditioning? He needs to drink a lot, avoid direct sunlight and physical exertion during the hottest hours. It is recommended to cool the body while taking a bath using a sink with ice water or frozen towels.
The more skin that we cool, the faster the body temperature decreases. Scientists have discovered in the 2015 year that cooling the palms accelerates the decrease in body temperature, and it is most effective to apply cold objects to the cheeks, legs and hands.
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